TL;DR (Too long Didn’t Read)
If you stand up a windows 2008 R2 VM in Azure with a random user name and password, Its very easy to know that user name and depending on the complexity of the chosen password, It may be feasible to brute-force the VM using RDP.
Below is the process we will follow :
1) As a victim, set up the Azure VM and RDP to it
2) As an attacker, determine the user name for the Azure VM.
3) As an attacker, determine the password for the Azure VM.
4) Simple steps to defend against the attack.
As a victim, set up the Azure VM and RDP to it
Log in to the Azure portal and create the VM
Choose Windows 2008 R2 SP1
Machine Name : Test-Machine-1
Username : SomeRandomName
Password: Choose a password.
Resource Group : Select an existing or just create a new one.
Be cheap and select the lowest cost disk from the list.
Select the RDP from the public inbound port
Finally click on the “Create” button to create the VM
Once the VM is created and running (you will see a notification in the portal), you should see the VM in the list with “Running” status.
Click on the “Test-Machine-1” VM entry in the above list and then click on the “Connect” button.
Click on the “Download RDP File” to download the RDP file for the VM.
Open the RDP file for the VM and enter the credential you used while setting up the VM.
and now we are in the VM
As an attacker, determine the user name for the Azure VM
There is a easier way to determine the user name rather than brute-forcing the VM.
If the victim is logged in to the VM, the attacker can use something like rdpy-rdpscreenshot.py which is one of the fantastic binaries in rdppy by Sylvain Peyrefitte (@citronneur) which allows to take the screenshot of the login screen.
See in the below screenshot. It connected to the IP address 184.108.40.206 and saved the screenshot to c:\temp\test_220.127.116.11.jpg.
python rdpy-rdpscreenshot.py -o c:\temp\test_ 18.104.22.168:3389
Here is the file with screenshot of the login screens showing the user name for the machine.
This was possible because Windows 2008 R2 supports Network Level Authentication – which completes the user authentication before you establish a RDP connection and the logon screen appears.
As an attacker, determine the password for the Azure VM
You can use a RDP brute-forcing utility such as Hydra [https://github.com/maaaaz/thc-hydra-windows] to determine the password for the user from a password list.
hydra -C “C:\temp\login-password-list.txt” 22.214.171.124 rdp
Simple steps to defend against the attack
When you set up the VM and setting up the RDP for it, It warns you about RDP will be exposed to the internet.
So, you should limit access to the RDP from your/your organization’s public IP address/CIDR only through the network security group changes for RDP.
VM Settings > Networking> RDP > Source IP addresses/CIDR ranges
Now with the source IP restriction, rdpy-rdpscreenshot.py from a different IP wont be able to reach the VM to take the screenshot of the login screen.